Tony (A.R.) Gardner-Medwin - Research Publications
Dept. Physiology (NPP), UCL, London WC1E 6BT
Groupings of research publications listed below:-
Uncertainty in Science & Law
Physiology of Sleep & Visual Pathway
Cerebellum, Hippocampus and Synaptic Potentiation
Memory mechanisms & Sleep Function
- Modifiable synapses necessary for learning.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1969) Nature 223, 916-918
- The recall of events through the learning of associations between their parts.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1976) Proc Roy Soc (Lond) B 194, 375-402
- The possible significance for learning of some different types of synaptic modification
Gardner-Medwin AR (1978) Trans Biochem Soc 6, 841-844
- The benefits of a low activity ratio in auto-associative recall.
Gardner-Medwin AR & Recce M (1987) Poster at RSRE meeting on Neural Networks, Malvern, Nov. 1987
- Doubly modifiable synapses: a model of short and long term auto-associative memory.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1989) Proc Roy Soc Lond B 238, 137-154
- Possible strategies for using sleep to improve episodic memory in the face of overlap. Springer-Verlag. London, pp. 129-138
Gardner-Medwin AR (1992) In Theory and Applications of Neural Networks, Ed. J.G. Taylor & C.L.T. Mannion.
- Book Review: Models of Brain Function ed. RMJ Cotterill
Gardner-Medwin AR (1991) Exp. Physiology 75, 151
The effect of sparseness in distributed representations on the detectability of associations between sensory events.
Gardner-Medwin AR & Barlow HB (1992) J. Physiol. (1992) 452,282P
- Learning associations for directly and indirectly represented features.
Gardner-Medwin AR & Barlow HB (1993) SERC workshop, Newcastle (unpublished).)
- Coding strategies for learning. Gardner-Medwin AR (1992) European J. Neuroscience. Suppl. 5,160
- Sensory representations suitable for learning. Barlow HB &
Gardner-Medwin AR (1993) Proc. 32nd Int Congress of Int. Union of Physiological Sciences, Glasgow 1-6 Aug. Abstract 355.8/P
- Possible mechanisms for reducing memory confusion during sleep.
Gardner-Medwin AR & Kaul S (1995) Behavioural Brain Research. 69, 167-175
- Enriched recall as a means to enhance memory consolidation during sleep.
Gardner-Medwin AR & Kaul, S (1995) Proc. 4th IBRO Congress Neuroscience, Kyoto, 1995
- A proper Knowledge Measure and its implications for learning.
Ren, K. & Gardner-Medwin AR (1995) Proc. 4th IBRO Congress Neuroscience, Kyoto, 1995
- Learning by Modifying Representations through Reverse Connections from Output.
Ren K & Gardner-Medwin A.R. (1998) European Journal of Neuroscience 10: S10, p.17616
- Limitations of learning in distributed representations.
Barlow H.B.B. & Gardner-Medwin A.R. (1998) Potsdam Workshop on Neuroinformatics, June 1998
- Localist representation can improve
efficiency for detection and counting. Barlow H. & Gardner-Medwin A.
(2000) Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:467-8
- The limits of counting accuracy in distributed neural representations.
Gardner-Medwin, A.R. & Barlow, H.B. (2001) Neural Computation 13: 477-504
- How many modifiable mechanisms do modifiable synapses need?
Gardner-Medwin, A.R. (2001) IUPS Congress, Christchurch, NZ POSTER (.PPT file)
- Do local modification rules allow efficient learning about distributed representations?,
A.R. Gardner-Medwin (2001) 19th Int. Aus Winter Conf Brain Res., Queenstown, NZ POSTER (.PPT file)
Potassium Dynamics & EC space in Brain Tissue
- The migration of potassium produced by electric current through brain tissue. Gardner-Medwin AR (1977) J Physiol 269 32P-33P
- Measurements of extracellular potassium and calciuum concentration during passage of current across the surface of the brain. Gardner-Medwin AR & Nicholson C (1978) J Physiol 275 66P-67P
- The amplitude and time course of extracellular potassium flux through brain tissue. Gardner-Medwin AR (1978) J Physiol 284 38P-39P
- Diffusion from an iontophoretic point source in the brain: role of tortuosity and volume fraction. Nicholson C, Phillips JM & Gardner-Medwin AR (1979) Brain Res 169 580-584
- The mechanism of potassium dispersal in brain tissue. Gardner-Medwin AR, Gibson JL & Willshaw DJ (1979) J Physiol 293 37P-38P
- Membrane transport and solute migration affecting the brain cell microenvironment. Gardner-Medwin AR (1980) Neuroscience Res Prog Bull 18 208-226
- Etudes sur le mouvement du potassium a travers la membrane cytoplasmique des cellules gliales de la retine. Coles JA, Gardner-Medwin AR & Tsacopoulos M (1980) Klin Mbl Augenheilk 176 522-523
- Clearance of extracellular potassium: evidence for spatial buffering by glial cells in the retina of the drone. Gardner-Medwin AR, Coles JA & Tsacopoulos (1981) Brain Res 209 452-457
- The role of cells in the dispersal of brain extracellular potassium In: Ion-selective electrodes and their use in excitable tissues. Gardner-Medwin AR (l981) Ed. E Sykova, et al. New York Plenum pp. 339-343
- Movement of potassium into glial cells in the retina of the drone Apis Mellifera during photostimulation In: Ion-selective electrodes and their use in excitable tissues. Coles JA, Tsacopoulos M, Rabineau P & Gardner-Medwin AR (l981) Ed E Sykova New York Plenum pp. 345-349
- Dispersal of potassium through glia. Gardner-Medwin AR & Coles JA (l981) Proc 28th Int Congr Physiol Sci
- A study of the mechanisms by which potassium moves through brain tissue in the rat. Gardner-Medwin AR (l983) J Physiol 335 353-374
- Changes of extracellular potassium activity produced by electric current through brain tissue in the rat. Gardner-Medwin AR & Nicholson C (l983) J Physiol 335 375-392
- Analysis of potassium dynamics in brain tissue. Gardner-Medwin AR (l983) J Physiol 335 393-426
- A foot in the vitreous fluid. Gardner-Medwin AR (1984) Nature 309 113
- Potassium in neural tissue. Gardner-Medwin AR (1987) pp 968-970 in: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Adelman G (Ed.), Boston, Birkhäuser
- Assessment of the glial 'spatial buffer' mechanism in rat brain, frog brain and retina. Gardner-Medwin AR (1987) pp 138-143 in: Functions of Neuroglia. Ed. Roitbak AI, Metsniereba, Tbilisi
- The space constant for glial potassium buffering in the isolated frog brain. Gardner-Medwin AR (1985) J Physiol 365:52P
- Potential challenge from glia. Gardner-Medwin AR (1985) Nature 315,181
- Factors affecting the optimal electrophysiological parameters for K+ buffering by glial cells. Gardner-Medwin AR (1985) Neuroscience Letters Suppl 22, 413
- A new framework for assessment of potassium buffering mechanisms. Gardner-Medwin AR (1986) Ann NY Acad Sci, 481, 287-302
- Potassium buffering. Gardner-Medwin AR (1987) Neuroscience 22, S13
- Potassium in neural tissue. Gardner-Medwin AR (1998) In : Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Neuroscience on CD-ROM Adelman G & Smith B. (Eds.)
- Spatial Buffering of K+ in Relation to Spreading Depression Models. Gardner-Medwin AR (2009).
Presentation to workshop on Modelling Migraine (July 22-23) at CNS 2009 (18th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting), Berlin.
- The challenge presented by altered brain interstitial fluid dynamics during slow wave sleep. Gardner-Medwin AR (2014) Poster for Physiological Society Meeting, London, June 2014
Spreading Depression in relation to Migraine and
- The effect of CO2 and O2 on Leão's spreading depression: evidence supporting a relationship to migraine.
Gardner-Medwin AR (l981) J Physiol 316 23P-24P
- Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics,spreading depression and migraine. Gardner-Medwin AR
(l981) J exp Biol 95 111-127
- Leão's Spreading Depression: evidence supporting a role in the migraine aura. In: Cerebral hypoxia in the pathogenesis
of migraine. Gardner-Medwin AR & Skelton JL (l982) F Clifford Rose & W Amery (Eds.), Bath, Pitman Press, pp. 127-131
- The relation between spreading depression and migraine. Gardner-Medwin AR & Skelton JL (l982) Neuroscience 7 S77
- The effects of CO2, O2 and
pH on spreading depression in the isolated chick retina. Skelton JL, Gardner-Medwin AR & George SA
Brain Res 288 229-233
- Experiments on spreading depression in relation to migraine
Gardner-Medwin AR & Mutch WAC (1984) In: Current views on spreading
depression. Martins-Ferreira H (Ed.), Anal. Acad brasil Ciencias 56(4),
- The influence of hypocapnia on the recovery of cerebral extracellular K+ changes induced by spreading depression in the anaesthetised rat.
Gardner-Medwin AR & Mutch WAC (1984) J Physiol 357, 42P
- Cortical spreading depression and platelet function in anaesthetised rabbits. Allen AE, Boullin DJ, Gardner-Medwin AR & Skelton
JL (1984) J Physiol 358,49P
- Oxygen electrodes for use on the surface of brain tissue subjected to pressure during neurosurgery. Felgate TCG and Gardner-Medwin
(1985) J. Physiol 365:13P
- Platelet function during Spreading Depression: implications
Gardner-Medwin AR & Boullin DJ (1985) In Migraine: Clinical and
Advances. Proc. 5th Int. Migraine Symp., London 1984, Ed. F. Clifford
pp 126-129 (Karger, Basel).
- Spreading Depression and Migraine. Gardner-Medwin AR
News 1, 7-8
- The influence of
hypocarbia on the resolution of transient
in brain extracellular potassium. Mutch WAC &
(1987) Anesthesiology, 66, 350-355
- Magnetometry and Magnetic
Complementary approaches to the Spreading Depression Issue in Migraine.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1996) In Developments in Neurology 12: Towards
Migraine 2000, ed. F. Clifford Rose, Elsevier Science B.V. pp 163-167
Magneto-Encephalography for detection of
Magnetic fields during Spreading Depression in the cortex of anaesthetised rabbits.
Barkley GL, Gardner-Medwin AR, Moran J, Nagel-Leiby S, Simkins RT, Tepley N & Welch KMA (1989) J Physiol 418,101P
- Magnetic observation of spreading cortical depression in anaesthetised rabbits.
Gardner-Medwin AR, Tepley N, Barkley GL, Moran J, Nagel-Leiby S, Simkins RT & Welch KMA (1990) In: Advances in Biomagnetism (Ed. Williamson SJ et al.) Plenum, NY, pp. 323-326.
- Magnetic fields associated with spreading depression in anasesthetised rabbits.
Gardner-Medwin AR, Tepley N, Barkley GL, Moran J, Nagel-Leiby S, Simkins RT & Welch KMA (1991) Brain Research 540, 153-158.
- Rotatory scanning for improved discrimination of very low frequency components of the magneto-encephalogram.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1991) Proc. 8th Int. Biomagnetism Conference, Munster 1991, pp. 61-62.
- Biomagnetic studies of slow CNS disturbances.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1993) In: Migraine: Basic Mechanisms and Treatment. ed. Lehmenkühler A. et al.. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munchen, pp. 229-238
- Rotatory scanning for improved discrimination of very low frequency components of the magneto-encephalogram.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1992). Biomagnetism '91: Clinical aspects. Ed. Hoke M., Erne S.N., Okada Y.C. & Romani G.L. Excerpta Medica: Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.881-885
- Magnetic and impedance measurements for the detection of spreading depression at a distance.
Gardner-Medwin AR. In: Spreading Depression, ed. RJ Do Carmo. Exp. Brain Res. Series 23,62-74 (1992).
- Measurement of slowly changing magnetic sources in the brain.
Gardner-Medwin AR, Elbert T. & Kowalik Z. (1993) IEE Colloquium Digest 16(9):1-3
- Direct measurement of the field changes with light adaptation.
Gardner-Medwin AR, Swithenby SJ, Fiaschi K, Elbert T & Kowalik Z. (1993) Advances in Biomagnetism: Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on Biomagnetism, Vienna 14-20 Aug. pp 9-10
Very slow electrophysiological signals in man: advantages of study by magnetic measurement.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1994) J. Physiol. 479,143P
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of pathologies related to Spreading Depression
- Magnetic resonance images of propagating waves of spreading depression in the anaesthetised rat. Gardner-Medwin AR, Van Bruggen N, Ahier RG
(1993) Proc. 2nd Int. Neurotrauma Symposium, Glasgow 4-9 July, Abstract 285. Published in J. Neurotrauma ?
- Magnetic resonance imaging of cortical spreading depression in the anaesthetised rat. van Bruggen N, Gardner-Medwin AR & Ahier RG (1993) Proc. 32nd Int Congress of Int. Union of Physiological Sciences, Glasgow 1-6 Aug. Abstract 288.5/P
- Propagating waves of spreading depression demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging in the anaesthetised rat. van Bruggen N, Gardner-Medwin AR & Ahier RG. (1993) J. Physiol. 467,318P
- Analysis of physiological changes in magnetic resonance sequences. Gardner-Medwin AR & Van Bruggen, N. (1993) J. Physiol. 473,5P
- Propagating waves of spreading depression demonstrated by gradient echo MRI in the anaesthetised rat. van Bruggen N, Gardner-Medwin AR, King MD & Williams SR. (1993) Proc Soc. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, New York, Aug. Vol1, p.54
- Magnetic resonance imaging of propagating waves of spreading depression in the anaesthetized rat. Gardner-Medwin AR, van Bruggen N, Williams SR & Ahier RG. (1994) J. Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 14,7-11
- An isolated preparation for studying the relationship between cell volume and diffusion weighted imaging signal intensity changes. O'Shea J, van Bruggen N, Gardner-Medwin AR & Williams SR (1995) Proc. Third Meeting, Soc. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 1:30
- Apparent diffusion coefficient and T2-relaxation time changes during osmotic volume manipulation in the isolated superfused turtle cerebellum. J.O’Shea, S.R.Williams, N.van Bruggen and A.R.Gardner-Medwin (1999) Physiological Research, 48:S104.
- Apparent diffusion coefficient and MR relaxation during osmotic manipulation in isolated superfused turtle cerebellum.J.O’Shea, S.R.Williams, N.van Bruggen and A.R.Gardner-Medwin (2000) Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 44:427-432
Psychophysics of visual and vestibular
- Independent binocular displays on a microcomputer screen Gardner-Medwin
AR & Rastegar K (1986) J. Physiol. 371, 23P
- Marked diurnal variation and reversal of binocular heterophoria (latent squint). Gardner-Medwin AR (1986) Poster presentation to British
Chronobiology Society, Cambridge, Sept.
- Relation of alpha rhythm to arousal and attention. Rastegar K & Gardner-Medwin AR (1986) Poster presentation to British Chronobiology
Society, Cambridge, Sept.
- Device to prevent vehicle drivers falling asleep.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1986) J Physiol 371, 22P
- Device to prevent vehicle drivers and others falling
asleep. Gardner-Medwin AR (1986) Published UK Patent application.
- Measurements of visual distractibility in relation to sleepiness. Gardner-Medwin
AR & Rastegar K (1987) Neuroscience 22, S519
- Monitoring drowsiness while driving. Gardner-Medwin AR (1988) Poster, European Society for Chronobiology, Birmingham
relation of alpha rhythm to sensory attention. Gardner-Medwin AR & Rastegar K (1989) J Physiol 415,66P
- Psychophysical monitoring of vestibulo-ocular reflex errors.
Gardner-Medwin AR, A Bucknill & A. Yue (1993) Proc. 32nd Int Congress of Int. Union of Physiological Sciences, Glasgow 1-6 Aug. Abstract
- Direct clinical monitoring of vestibulo-ocular reflexes.
Gardner-Medwin A.R. Bucknill A.T., Yue, A., & Luxon L.M. (1993) J. Physiol. 473,23P
- A new technique for assessing vestibular function. Luxon LM, Gardner-Medwin AR, Bucknill AT & Yue A (1993) Proc. 7th Int Symp Audiol
Med., Cardiff 19-22 Sept., Abstract 99.
- Static and dynamic tests of visual function with torsional head movements. Gardner-Medwin AR, Varughese M
& Margetts, P (1996) J. Physiol. 494:2-3P
- Visual stabilisation during dynamic head roll in avestibular human subjects. Gardner-Medwin A.R., M.Doshi, M.Faldon
and A.Bronstein (1997) J. Physiol. 505P:78
- Five Physiologists. Trinity Review Gardner-Medwin AR (1966) pp18-20, Easter Issue.
- The origin of the early receptor potential of the retina. Brindley GS & Gardner-Medwin AR (1967) J Physiol 182 185-194
- The "giant" axon of the leech. Gardner-Medwin AR, Jansen JKS & Taxt T (1973) Acta Physiol scand 87 30A-31A
- Decision limits for significance of changes in the cumulative sum of the peri-stimulus time histogram. Ellaway PH, Gardner-Medwin AR
& Pascoe JE (1983) J Physiol 341 4P-5P
- Intracranial and extracranial measurement of changes in cerebral impedance in the anaesthetized rat. Gardner-Medwin AR & Holder DS
(1987) J. Physiol. 390,9P
- Some possible neurological applications of applied potential tomography.
Holder DS & Gardner-Medwin AR (1988) Clin. Phys. Physiol. Meas. 9, Supp.A, 111-119
- Conversion of the sceptics.
Gardner-Medwin AR (1988) Nature 334,26
- Implications of the septal structure in fish muscle. Gardner-Medwin AR & Curtin NA (1990) J Physiol 426,36P
- Mechanical consequences of conical septal structure in dogfish muscle. Gardner-Medwin AR & Curtin NA. DRAFT
- Septal structure and function in fish muscle. Gardner-Medwin AR & Curtin NA. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. of the UK 71,736
- Curtin N.A., Gardner-Medwin A.R. & Woledge R.C. (1997) Abstract for Society of Experimental Biology, April 1997
- Predictions of the time-course and power output by dogfish white muscle fibres during brief tetani.
Curtin N.A., Gardner-Medwin A.R. & Woledge R.C. (1998) J. exp. Biol. 201:103-114